Introduction to Android

What is android?

Android is an open-source operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface for mobile devices such as Smartphone (Touch Screen Devices who supports Android OS) as well as tablets too.

The source code has been used to develop variants of Android on a range of other electronics, such as game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and others, each with a specialized user interface. Some well known derivatives include Android TV for televisions and Wear OS for wearables, both developed by Google. Software packages on Android, which use the APK format, are generally distributed through proprietary application stores like Google Play Store, Samsung Galaxy Store, and Huawei AppGallery, or open source platforms like Aptoide or F-Droid.

Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013. As of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, and as of August 2020, the Google Play Store features over 3 million apps.[15] The current stable version is Android 10, released on September 3, 2019, and it's the most popular Android version.

History of Android

The history and versions of android are interesting to know.

Android is developed by a consortium of developers known as the Open Handset Alliance and commercially sponsored by Google

The code names of Android ranges from A to P currently, Such as Aestro, Blender, Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwitch, JellyBean, KitKat, Lollipop, Marshmallow, Nougat, Oreo, and Pie.

Let's understand the android history in sequence.

1) Initially, Andy Rubin founded Android Incorporation in Palo Alto, California, the United States in October, 2003.

2) In 17th August 2005, Google acquired Android Corporation. Since then, it is in the subsidiary of Google Incorporation.

3) The key employees of the Android Incorporation are Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Chris White and Nick Sears.

4) Originally intended for camera but shifted to smart phones later because of low market for camera only.

5) Android is the nick name of Andy Rubin given by coworkers because of his love to robots.

6) In 2007, Google announces the development of Android OS.

Android API Level:

API Level is an integer value that uniquely identifies the framework.

API revision offered by a version of the Android Platform.

Android Versions, Codename and API:

Code Names Versions API Level
Pie 9 API level 28
Oreo 8.1.0 API level 27
Oreo 8.0.0 API level 26
Naugat 7.1 API level 25
Naugat 7.0 API level 24
Marshmallow 6.0 API level 23
Lollipop 5.1 API level 22
Lollipop 5.0 API level 21
KitKat 4.4 - 4.4.4 API level 19
Jelly Bean 4.3.x API level 18
Jelly Bean 4.2.x API level 17
Jelly Bean 4.1.x API level 16
Ice Cream Sandwitch 4.0.3 - 4.0.4 API level 15, NDK 8
Ice Cream Sandwitch 4.0.1 - 4.0.2 API level 14, NDK 7
Honeycomb 3.2.x API level 13
Honecomb 3.1 API level 12, NDK 6
Honecomb 3.0 API level 11
Gingerbread 2.3.3 - 2.3.7 API level 10
Gingerbread 2.3 - 2.3.2 API level 9, NDK 5
Froyo 2.2.x API level 8, NDK 4
Eclair 2.1 API level 7, NDK 3
Eclair 2.0.1 API level 6
Eclair 2.0 API level 5
Donut 1.6 API level 4, NDK 2
Cupcake 1.5 API level 3, NDK 1
(no code name) 1.1 API level 2
(no code name) 1.0 API level 1

Why we choose android?

  1. Open Source
  2. Larger Developer And Community Reach
  3. Increased Marketing
  4. Inter App Integration
  5. Reduced Cost of Development
  6. Higher Success Ratio
  7. Rich Development Environment

Android features:

  1. Beautiful UI
    Android OS basic screen provides a beautiful and intuitive user interface.
  2. Connectivity
    GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE, NFC and WiMAX.
  3. Storage
    SQLite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purpose.
  4. Media Support
    H.263, H.264, MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, AAC, HE-AAC, AAC 5.1, MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, and BMP.
  5. Messaging 
    SMS and MMS
  6. Web Browser
    Based on the open-source WebKit layout engine, coupled with Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine supporting HTML5 and CSS3.
  7. Multi-Touch 
    Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero.
  8. Multi-Language
    Supports single direction and bi-directional text.
  9. Multi-Tasking
    User can jump from one task to another and same time various application can run simultaneously.
  10. GCM
    Google Cloud Massaging (GCM) is a service that lets developers send short message data to their users on Android devices, without needing a proprietary sync solution.
  11. Wi-Fi Direct
    A technology that lets apps discover and pair directly, over a high-bandwidth peer-to-peer connection.
  12. Resizable widgets
    Widgets are resizable, so users can expand them to show more content or shrink them to save space.
  13. Android Beam
    A popular NFC-based technology that lets users instantly share, just by touching two NFC-enabled phones together.